Luge

Luge riders hurtle down a slippery ice track at great speed, relying on reflexes for steering. Unlike bobsleigh, however, they have no protection should they make an error.

Swiss origins
Luge is the French word for “sledge” and, like bobsleigh, it was developed as a sport in Switzerland. Its roots go back to the 16th century, but it was not until 300 years later that the first luge tracks were built by Swiss hotel owners to cater for thrill-seeking tourists.

Davos
The first course was built in Davos in 1879, and four years later the town was host to the first international competition, with competitors racing along an icy 4km road between Davos and the village of Klosters. The sport then transferred to what has become its spiritual home, the purpose-built Cresta Run in nearby St Moritz.

No brakes
Luge is one of the oldest winter sports. It involves competitors lying on their backs on a tiny sled with their feet stretched out in front of them, and racing down an icy track at speeds in the range of 140 km/h, without brakes. As well as the singles, there is a pairs event, with the larger of the two team members lying on top for better aerodynamics.

Olympic history
It was not until 1955 that the first World Championship was organised, i.e. 41 years after the first European Championships. Nine years later, in 1964, luge made its Olympic debut, at the Innsbruck Games, with a mixed event, a men’s event and a women’s event. The programme has not changed since then. Since 1976, this sport has taken place on the same track as bobsleigh.

The discipline was dominated by the East Germans, who won 15 of the 21 gold medals available between 1964 and 1988. One of the undisputed masters of luge is a German: Georg Hackl, who won gold three times consecutively, in 1994 in Lillehammer, 1998 in Nagano and 2002 in Salt Lake City.

Bridge
The part of a sled that connects the two runners and from which the aerodynamic racing shell is suspended. Made of steel, there are two bridges on each sled – one in front and one in back.

Gloves
Luge gloves are spiked at the fingertips to assist with the start and paddling motion as the sliders accelerate onto the track.

Grip
Each hand holds a handle on the side of the sled.

Helmet
Sliders wear helmets that have a clear or tinted visor which extends under the chin to reduce resistance.

Kufen
The German word for runner, usually made of fibreglass or wood. The slider steers by applying pressure with his/her foot onto the runners.

Pod
The aerodynamic shell which serves as the seat for the athlete.

Racing suit
Sliders wear specially designed race suits to reduce wind resistance.

Shoes
Sliders must wear special shoes with zipperss, so that the foot straightens out when the zipper is closed. There are also regulations for the insole and heel of the shoe.

Steel runner or steels
The sled rides along the track on two steel runners called steels. They are the only part of the sled that touches the ice’s surface and are attached to the kufens.

G-Force
Gravitational force that holds the sled and athlete on the wall of a banked curve. A “G” is equal to the force of gravity

Kreisel
German word for circle; a curve that forms a circle by the track crossing over itself.

Labyrinth
A combination of small curves on a luge track with little or no straight stretches between them; a labyrinth usually consists of three to four curves.

Omega curve
From above, the curve resembles the Greek letter Omega.

Paddle
The action of accelerating the sled forward after the start, using spiked gloves to dig into the ice surface.

Slider
A luge athlete; rarely called a luger.

Source: olympic.org